Literature review on obesity in australia airports

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Even within the direct healthcare cost there is variation between studies, with some addressing a wide range of therapies and others narrowly focussed on a single aspect, e. In the early s, the World Health Organisation WHO categories for BMI of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese were not agreed or consistently applied internationally. Thus in the earlier studies there is also variation in the BMI categories used to describe overweight and obesity. These factors hinder international comparisons in cost of overweight and obesity studies. In however, the WHO standardised the definition of normal weight, overweight and obesity [ 16 ], and most studies after have adopted these definitions.

Many studies of the cost of obesity have been carried out in the US.

Other databases include the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey MEPS which provide data on healthcare usage and expenditures on the Ljterature American civilian population. Estimates from the suggested that in the US between 4. Direct healthcare costs were the main focus of many of these studies obesigy 1120 - 24 ], mainly wustralia the top Literatrue approach [ 1112202123 ] and most focussed only on obesity [ 111220 - 2224 ]. Due to the inconsistencies highlighted above, cross country comparisons are difficult. While a number of reviews have been published [ 3 - 825 - 30 ] it is important in the context of a rapidly emerging evidence base that these are updated on a regular basis.

These previously published reviews have attempted to assimilate large amounts of data from heterogeneous studies which greatly limits the extent to which conclusions or recommendations can be drawn from them. This review attempted to examine a more homogenous group of studies which investigated both the direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity and if comparability of such studies can be improved by reducing the scope of the search strategy.

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Therefore this review explores the problems associated with the methodological heterogeneity of these types of studies, even within the narrow scope of this review. There is a substantial lack of literature examining the full scope of costs associated with overweight and obesity. As a means to address literature gap and add to the current body of evidence, this review attempts to reveal the most appropriate methodologies for these studies and the most appropriate data sources to be used which would enable international comparisons. This review formed part of the preliminary work for the Irish cost of overweight and obesity study which estimated the direct and indirect costs for overweight and obesity in Ireland for The study began in and was completed in September Preliminary work for this study included a broader look at literature estimating the cost of overweight and obesity.

Table of contents

Literature which was published after and up to the end of was examined and this timeframe is reflected in the searching and identification of relevant papers for the current Literaturee [ 31 ]. Articles published prior to were not eligible for inclusion as economic data which is older than ten years bares little relevance in the changing economic climate. In order to provide a thorough breakdown of articles according obesty scope, two main searches were conducted in PubMed. The first search focused on the direct cost of overweight or obesity, with the second search focusing on the geview cost of overweight and obesity.

Included a MeSH search of the following search terms: Reference lists of retrieved articles were fully scanned and a thorough search of the grey literature was conducted to include national reports relating to the cost of overweight and obesity. Furthermore Conference Proceedings was searched for unpublished abstracts. Government websites for the major developed countries were searched to identify relevant reports; this was augmented with a Google search. The Cochrane Library was also searched for cost of obesity studies.

Reference lists of retrieved reports and articles were scanned to identify any further potential studies that had been missed. Review articles were identified and while they did not form part of the review, their reference lists were searched for further unidentified articles. No restrictions were placed on the study population nationality, or statistical designs or methods. Eligibility criteria Studies generated from the search strategy were deemed eligible for inclusion in the review if they satisfied all of the strict exclusion criteria which included: Studies focused on children and other discreet groups e.

Children were excluded as they are not included in the Irish cost of overweight and obesity study for which this literature review was performed. Studies published before or after All commentary and review articles. The results were summarised and presented in each case as the costs determined in the study, and these costs were also converted to Irish Euros using inflation rates and Purchasing Power Parity PPP in order to improve comparability.

Obesity and injury in Australia: a review of the literature

Results Search strategy results From PubMed articles were retrieved from the combined searches. Following removal of duplicates there were articles to be reviewed. Variation is also evident with respect to the number of conditions included, for example, which ranged from four [9,10], to ten or more [11,12]. Even within the direct healthcare cost there is variation between studies, with some addressing a wide range of therapies and others narrowly focussed on a single aspect, e.

In the early s, the World Health Organisation WHO categories for BMI of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese were not agreed or consistently applied internationally. Thus in the earlier studies there is aiports variation in the BMI categories used to describe overweight and obesity. These factors hinder international comparisons in cost of overweight and obesity studies. In however, the WHO standardised the definition of normal weight, over- weight and obesity [16], and most studies after have adopted these definitions. Many studies of the cost of obesity have been carried out in the US. BMC Research Notes7: Estimates from the suggested that in the US between 4.

Direct healthcare costs were the main focus of many of these studies [11,], mainly using the top down approach [11,12,20,21,23] and most focussed only on obesity [11,12,24].

Due to the inconsistencies highlighted above, cross country comparisons are difficult. While a number of reviews have been published [,] it is important in the context of a rapidly emerging evidence base that these are updated on a regular basis. These previously published reviews have attempted to assimilate large amounts of data from het- erogeneous studies which greatly limits the extent to which conclusions or recommendations can be drawn from them. This review attempted to examine a more ho- mogenous group of studies which investigated both the direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity and if comparability of such studies can be improved by redu- cing the scope of the search strategy.

Therefore this review explores the problems associated with the methodological heterogeneity of these types of studies, even within the narrow scope of this review.

There is a substantial lack australix literature examining aiports full scope of costs associated with overweight and obesity. As a means to address literature gap and add to the current body of evidence, this review attempts to reveal the most appropriate methodologies for these studies and the most appropriate data sources to be used which would enable international comparisons. This review formed part of the preliminary work for the Irish cost of overweight and obesity study which esti- mated the direct and indirect costs for overweight and obesity in Ireland for The study began in and was completed in September Preliminary work for this study included a broader look at literature estimat- ing the cost of overweight and obesity.


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